1. What is Glucoma
Glaucoma is a disease of the major nerve of vision, called the optic nerve. The optic nerve receives light-generated nerve impulses from the retina and transmits these to the brain, where we recognize those electrical signals as vision. Glaucoma is characterized by a particular pattern of progressive damage to the optic nerve that generally begins with a subtle loss of side vision (peripheral vision). If glaucoma is not diagnosed and treated, it can progress to loss of central vision and blindness.
Treatment for Glucoma
There are several forms of laser therapy for glaucoma. Laser iridotomy involves making a hole in the colored part of the eye (iris) to allow fluid to drain normally in eyes with narrow or closed angles. Laser trabeculoplasty is a laser procedure performed only in eyes with open angles. Laser trabeculoplasty does not cure glaucoma but may be done instead of increasing the number of different eyedrops, or when a patient is already using multiple eyedrops (maximal medical therapy). In some cases, it is used as the initial or primary therapy for open-angle glaucoma. This procedure is a quick, relatively painless, and safe method of lowering the intraocular pressure. With the eye numbed by anesthetic drops, the laser treatment is applied through a mirrored contact lens to the angle of the eye. Microscopic laser burns to the angle allow fluid to better exit the drainage channels.
2. What is Cataract
A cataract is a clouding of the lens inside the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. It is the most common cause of blindness and is conventionally treated with surgery. Visual loss occurs because opacification of the lens obstructs light from passing and being focused on to the retina at the back of the eye.
It is most commonly due to aging, but there are many other causes. Over time, yellow-brown pigment is deposited in the lens and this, together with disruption of the lens fibers, reduces the transmission of light and leads to visual problems.
Those with cataracts often experience difficulty in appreciating colors and changes in contrast, driving, reading, recognizing faces, and coping with glare from bright lights.
Treatment for Cataract
Cataract removal can be performed at any stage and no longer requires ripening of the lens. Surgery is usually ‘outpatient’ and performed using local anesthesia. About 9 out of 10 patients can achieve a corrected vision of 20/40 or better after surgery.
Several recent evaluations found that surgery can only meet expectations when there is significant functional impairment from poor vision prior to surgery.Visual function estimates such as VF-14 have been found to give more realistic estimates than visual acuity testing alone.
3. Lasik Surgery
LASIK is a surgical procedure that uses a laser to correct nearsightedness, farsightedness, and/or astigmatism. In LASIK, a thin flap in the cornea is created using either a microkeratome blade or a femtosecond laser. The surgeon folds back the flap, then removes some corneal tissue underneath using an excimer laser. The flap is then laid back in place, covering the area where the corneal tissue was removed.
With nearsighted people, the goal of LASIK is to flatten the too-steep cornea; with farsighted people, a steeper cornea is desired. LASIK can also correct astigmatism by smoothing an irregular cornea into a more normal shape.
4. What is Retinal Detachment
A retinal detachment is a separation of the retina from its attachments to the underlying tissue within the eye. Most retinal detachments are a result of a retinal break, hole, or tear. These retinal breaks may occur when the vitreous gel pulls loose or separates from its attachment to the retina, usually in the peripheral parts of the retina. The vitreous is a clear gel that fills two-thirds of the inside of the eye and occupies the space in front of the retina. As the vitreous gel pulls loose, it will sometimes exert traction on the retina, and if the retina is weak, the retina will tear. Most retinal breaks are not a result of injury. Retinal tears are sometimes accompanied by bleeding if a retinal blood vessel is included in the tear. Many people develop separation of the vitreous from the retina as they get older. However, only a small percentage of these vitreous separations result in retinal tears.
Once the retina has torn, liquid from the vitreous gel can then passes through the tear and accumulate behind the retina. The buildup of fluid behind the retina is what separates (detaches) the retina from the back of the eye. As more of the liquid vitreous collects behind the retina, the extent of the retinal detachment can progress and involve the entire retina, leading to a total retinal detachment. A retinal detachment almost always affects only one eye at a time. The second eye, however, must be checked thoroughly for any signs of predisposing factors that may lead to detachment in the future
Treatment for Retinal Detachment
Retinal holes or tears can be treated with laser therapy or cryotherapy (freezing) to prevent their progression to a full-scale detachment. Many factors determine which holes or tears need to be treated. These factors include the type and location of the defects, whether pulling on the retina (traction) or bleeding is involved, and the presence of any of the other risk factors discussed above. Three types of eye surgery are done for actual retinal detachment: scleral buckling, pneumatic retinopexy, and vitrectomy.
5. Eye Prosthesis
An ocular prosthesis or artificial eye is a type of craniofacial prosthesis that replaces an absent natural eye following an enucleation, evisceration, or orbital exenteration. The prosthesis fits over an orbital implant and under the eyelids. Often referred to as a glass eye, the ocular prosthesis roughly takes the shape of a convex shell and is made of medical grade plastic acrylic. A few ocular prostheses today are made of cryolite glass.
The surgical procedure to remove the entire natural eye is referred to as an enucleation. The surgical procedure to remove the contents of of a natural eye is referred to as evisceration. Both procedures will require prosthetic restoration with the fitting of an artificial eye. This process can usually begin approximately six weeks following the initial surgery.
Fitting the artificial eye begins with a board certified ocularist taking an impression mold or other advanced fitting methods to accurately contour or manipulate the anophthalmic socket. These techniques are utilized to ensure the prosthesis has optimal cosmesis, comfort, and movement.
6. Cornea Transplant
Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (the graft) in its entirety (penetrating keratoplasty) or in part (lamellar keratoplasty). (Keratoplasy is surgery to the cornea.) The graft is taken from a recently deceased individual with no known diseases or other factors that may affect the viability of the donated tissue or the health of the recipient.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil and anterior chamber. Corneal eye disease is the fourth most common cause of blindness (after cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and affects more than 10 million people worldwide.
Why you need Cornea Transplant
A healthy, clear cornea is essential for good vision. If your cornea is damaged due to eye disease or eye injury, it can become swollen, scarred or severely misshapen and distort your vision.
A cornea transplant may be necessary if eyeglasses or contact lenses can’t restore your functional vision or if painful swelling can’t be relieved by medications or special contact lenses.