Joint replacement surgeries
1. Knee Replacement
Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to be more active. Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not helping you anymore.
During knee joint replacement surgery, damaged cartilage and bone are removed from the knee joint. Man-made (artificial) pieces, called prostheses, are then placed in the knee.
These pieces may be placed in up to three surfaces in the knee joint:
• Lower end of the thigh bone. This bone is called the femur. The replacement part is usually made of metal.
• Upper end of the shin bone–the large bone in your lower leg. This bone is called the tibia. The replacement part is usually made from metal and a strong plastic.
• Back side of your kneecap. Your kneecap is called the patella. The replacement part is usually made from a strong plastic.
The most common reason to have a knee joint replaced is to relieve severe arthritis pain. Your doctor may recommend knee joint replacement if:
• You can’t sleep through the night because of knee pain
• Your knee pain limits or keeps you from doing your normal activities, such as bathing, preparing meals, and household chores
• You can’t walk and take care of yourself
• Your knee pain has not improved with other treatment
Types of surgery
There are two main types of surgery, depending on the condition of the knee:
• Total knee replacement (TKR) – both sides of your knee joint are replaced
• Partial (half) knee replacement (PKR) – only one side of your joint is replaced in a smaller operation with a shorter hospital stay and recovery period
2. Hip Replacement
The hip joint is one of the largest joints in the human body and is what is known as a “ball and socket joint”.In a healthy hip joint, the bones are connected to each other with bands of tissue known as ligaments. These ligaments are lubricated with fluid to reduce friction.
Joints are also surrounded by a type of tissue called cartilage that is designed to help support the joints and prevent bones from rubbing against each other. The main purpose of the hip joints is to support the upper body when a person is standing, walking and running, and to help with certain movements, such as bending and stretching.
Hip replacement is surgery for people with severe hip damage. The most common cause of damage is osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis causes pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your joints. It can interfere with your daily activities. If other treatments such as physical therapy, pain medicines, and exercise haven’t helped, hip replacement surgery might be an option for you.
During a hip replacement operation, the surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone from your hip joint and replaces them with new, man-made parts.
A hip replacement can
• Relieve pain
• Help your hip joint work better
• Improve walking and other movements
A Total hip replacement is a surgical procedure whereby the diseased cartilage and bone of the hip joint is surgically replaced with artificial materials. The normal hip joint is a ball and socket joint. The socket is a “cup-shaped” bone of the pelvis called the acetabulum. The ball is the head of the thighbone (femur). Total hip joint replacement involves surgical removal of the diseased ball and socket and replacing them with a metal (or ceramic) ball and stem inserted into the femur bone and an artificial plastic (or ceramic) cup socket. The metallic artificial ball and stem are referred to as the “prosthesis.” Upon inserting the prosthesis into the central core of the femur, it is fixed with a bony cement called methylmethacrylate. Alternatively, a “cementless” prosthesis is used that has microscopic pores which allow bony ingrowth from the normal femur into the prosthesis stem. This “cementless” hip is felt to have a longer duration and is considered especially for younger patients
3. Ankle Replacement
Ankle replacement is surgery to replace the damaged bone and cartilage in the ankle joint. Artificial joint parts (prosthetics) are used to replace your own bones. There are different types of ankle replacement surgeries.
Surgery to replace the ankle joint with an artificial joint (called ankle arthroplasty) is becoming more common. This surgery is not done as often as replacement of the knee or hip joints. Still, when necessary, this operation can reduce the pain from arthritis of the ankle. Recent advances in the design of the artificial ankle and changes in the way the operation is performed have made artificial ankle replacement a growing alternative to ankle fusion for the treatment of ankle arthritis.
4. Elbow Replacement
Elbow replacement, or total elbow arthroplasty, is surgery that can reduce pain and restore mobility in people whose elbow joints have been damaged. The damage could be from a disease such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or from a traumatic injury.
During elbow replacement, a surgeon removes damaged tissue and parts of the two arm bones — the humerus and the ulna — that meet at the elbow joint. After removing tissue and bone, the surgeon replaces the elbow joint with an artificial one. The artificial joint consists of two implants that are attached to the insides of the humerus and ulna. The implants are joined together by a metal and plastic hinge. Various types of implants exist to fit joints of different sizes